CVADD Awarded Brownfields Grant from EPA

EPA recently announced that three Kentucky communities have been selected to receive over $1.4 million in grant funding to assess brownfield properties. This year's award recipients include the Cumberland Valley Area Development District with a $500,000 Community-wide Assessment Grant. Grant funds will be used to inventory sites and conduct up to 10 Phase I and up to nine Phase II environmental site assessments. Funding will also be used to develop nine cleanup plans and three resource roadmaps, and to support community outreach activities. The target areas for this grant are the Cities of Cumberland, Benham, and Lynch, all of which have been severely impacted by the closure of coal mines in the area. Priority sites include a former power company, an unused section of rail line, an unused 8,500-square-foot building that once housed a medical clinic, a 61-year-old former gas station, and a 25,000-square-foot building that was formerly a high school. As it is a community-wide grant, CVADD will also be working with officials in all 8 counties and 17 municipalities in its district to list and evaluate other potential sites for Phase I and Phase II assessments. If you have questions, please contact Susanna Cornett, Economic Development Specialist, at 606-864-7391 or


Legislators Recognized During April 2022 CVADD Board of Directors Meeting

During the April 2022 Cumberland Valley Area Development District Board of Directors Meeting, the Board gave thanks to each of our Legislators in recognition of outstanding leadership, dedication, and support to the CVADD. Pictured are Representative Adam Bowling, Senator Brandon Storm, Representative Timmy Truett, Executive Director Whitney Chesnut, CVADD Chairman Shane Gabbard, Representative Shane Baker, and Representative Angie Hatton.


Area Development Districts recognized on 50th Anniversary

On the 50th anniversary of our establishment, Governor Andy Beshear issued an acclamation paying tribute to CVADD and the other 14 Kentucky Area Development Districts for our work across the state! A Citation of Appreciation was also received from both the Senate and the House of Representatives. Thank you, Governor Beshear and the Commonwealth of Kentucky, for your recognition. We are proud to serve our region!


Application Period open for RTP and LWCP Grants

ATTENTION LOCAL GOVERNMENTS - The Grant Period for the Recreational Trails Program and Land & Water Conservation Fund Program is now OPEN through May 31, 2022. If you are interested in applying & need assistance in completing the application, please contact Caitlin Mason at the CVADD at or calling 606-864-7391.

The Recreational Trails Program (RTP) is funded by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). It can be used to provide assistance for acquisition of easements, development and/or maintenance of recreational trails and trailhead facilities for both motorized and non-motorized use. The Recreational Trails Program benefits communities and enhances quality of life. More info on RTP is at External link opens in new tab or window

The LWCF provides federal grant funds to protect important natural areas, acquire land for outdoor recreation and to develop or renovate public outdoor recreation facilities such as campgrounds, picnic areas, sports & playfields, swimming facilities, boating facilities, fishing facilities, trails, natural areas and passive parks. More info on LWCP is at: External link opens in new tab or window


CVADD assists Governor Beshear on announcing school safety projects for the City of Corbin

June 3, 2021 (Corbin, Kentucky) - CVADD Regional Transportation Planner, Jessica Blankenship, was honored today to speak alongside External link opens in new tab or windowGovernor Andy Beshear, City of Corbin Mayor Suzie Razmus, Corbin Independent Schools Superintendent David Cox, and External link opens in new tab or windowRocky Adkins. The group revealed an investment of two transportation projects.

The first project was $750,000 for design and construction of a roundabout at Corbin Primary School, which Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC) engineers believe will dramatically reduce the number of crashes at a longtime problem spot the intersection of Kentucky Route 727, Black Diamond Road and Barton Cutoff Road.

The second project was $290,000 to build a new sidewalk on Master Street. When completed, the city will have more than a half-mile of sidewalk that has been desperately needed on a busy major highway that connects Corbin Middle School, retail shopping, mixed housing, a senior citizen living facility, grocery, banking, medical offices, pharmacies and other services. Pedestrian traffic in the area includes several residents who utilize walking aid devices, as well as motorized wheelchairs. The sidewalk will provide a safer route for them to navigate. The project area will go from Standard Avenue to Commonwealth Avenue, near Trademark Shopping Center.

Cumberland Valley Area Development District has assisted communities in the 8 county region with Bicycle & Pedestrian Master Plans, as well as road project prioritization, to provide safer routes for citizens.  Watch WTVQ ABC 36 Coverage of the event by External link opens in new tab or windowclicking here.


Three CVADD Area Projects Awarded Funding from Department of Local Government

March 29, 2021 (Frankfort, KY):  Today, Governor Andy Beshear announced his selection of 41 projects totaling more than $4.3 million to receive funding from the Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF). All selected projects will upgrade parks and recreation spaces across Kentucky. Three of these projects are located in the Cumberland Valley Area Development District region.

LWCF is a federal program designed to protect important natural areas, help local communities acquire land for outdoor recreation spaces and to develop or renovate public, outdoor recreation spaces such as campgrounds, picnic areas, sports and playfields, swimming, boating or fishing facilities, trails, natural areas and passive parks.

“Parks and recreation spaces are an important part of every Kentucky community,” said Gov. Beshear. “They provide safe spaces for exercise, community-building and leisure, which are all important factors in ensuring Kentuckians are healthy and happy. Ultimately, parks and recreation spaces are a critical piece in building a better Kentucky for every family.”To receive funding, administered at the state level by the Department for Local Government (DLG), selected applicants must undergo federal review and receive approval from the National Park Service.         

“The Land and Water Conservation Fund will provide crucial funding for communities in every corner of Kentucky,” said DLG Commissioner Dennis Keene. “We are grateful these funds will upgrade Kentucky parks with accessible trails, playgrounds and more for every Kentuckian to enjoy.”
  • Barbourville will use $27,304 for splash pad improvements – a bucket dump water attraction and an area to sunbathe.
  • London will use $99,995 to purchase ADA accessible playground equipment and a sensory maze at Levi Jackson Wilderness Road Park.
  • Middlesboro will use $119,101 to remove and replace five outdated play structures with new ADA accessible structures and install poured-in-place rubber surfacing.


CVADD Partnership to Provide Emergency Meals


Eric Jones, Corbin Park Department staff, delivered emergency meal's through a partnership with the Cumberland Valley Area Development District to Beverly Faulkner, Corbin Senior Citizens Center.  Ivan Griffith, Cecil Powers and Jimmy White, Sanitation and Recreation staff, delivered emergency meals through a partnership with CVADD, to  Williamsburg Senior Citizens Center.  Emergency Meals were provided through CVADD's Department for Aging and Independent Living. 

CVADD presents Board of Director Member with award


December 16, 2020 (London, KY):  Cumberland Valley Area Development District's Executive Director, Whitney Chesnut, presented Board of Directors member, Gary Barton, with the Make a Difference Award.  Mr. Barton has served on the board for 30 years, providing his expertise for the programs and services offered by the CVADD.  Many thanks of gratitude to Mr. Barton as he is well deserving of this achievement.


CVADD employee graduates from Leadership Kentucky BRIGHT KY Program


November 20, 2020 (Hazard, KY):  Caitlin Mason, Public Administrative Specialist, recently graduated from the BRIGHT Kentucky Program. BRIGHT Kentucky is designed to build the capacity of next-generation leaders in the Appalachian region of Kentucky to innovate, collaborate, and advance community and economic development. Participants were involved in five multi-day sessions to fully understand the local economic context and to build robust skill sets in communication, collaboration, consensus building, visioning, and community engagement.

BRIGHT Kentucky, which began in 2019, engages bright, entrepreneurial minds from various occupational sectors to offer non-partisan, ethical leadership training, expanded networks, and mentors designed especially for residents of the 54 Kentucky counties of the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC). The program is made possible by a $500,000 ARC grant and private funding from the Whitaker Foundation, SOAR, and others.
Pictured with Caitlin is Ms. Janice Way, President of Leadership Kentucky, and Mr. Elmer Whitaker, President of Whitaker Bank. Many thanks to the sponsors and Leadership Kentucky for providing this opportunity for the last two years so that the CVADD can participate.
For more information on BRIGHT, be sure to visit External link opens in new tab or


Kentucky to be featured in Mobility, Economic Resilience, and Substance Use Disorder Workshop Series

November 13, 2020 (London, KY):  The National Association of Development Organizations (NADO), will be hosting free online workshop series that highlight mobility resources and opportunities to support recovery, work, and regional resilience.  Each workshop will include a mix of presentations, discussion, and smaller group conversations.


Employers, community members, and professionals working in transportation, community and economic development, workforce development, health, the justice system, and more are joining these multidisciplinary conversations about resources and opportunities in Southeastern Kentucky.


Upcoming workshop sessions include:

November 17, 1 – 3 p.m. ET: SUD and Rural Transportation Opportunities

Learn what federal resources are available in rural areas, existing transportation services, and innovative transportation ideas from other regions. Register here: External link opens in new tab or window


December 1, 1 – 3 p.m. ET: Supporting Recovery and Economic Resilience

Recovery for individuals with substance use disorders is possible with supports in place. Discuss employment, housing, mobility, and economic resilience in this session. Register here: External link opens in new tab or window


This series is hosted by the Big Sandy Area Development District, Cumberland Valley Area Development District, Kentucky River Area Development District, and the National Association of Development Organizations Research Foundation, together with the Western Transportation Institute and National Rural Transit Assistance Program. Funding support has been provided by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.


For more information, visit External link opens in new tab or window


CVADD Awarded Homeland Security Grant

October 12, 2020 (London, KY):  The State Homeland Security Program (SHSP) assists state, local, tribal, and territorial efforts to build, sustain, and deliver the capabilities necessary to prevent, prepare for, protect against, and respond to acts of terrorism. SHSGP supports the implementation of risk driven, capabilities-based approaches to address capability targets set in urban area, state, and regional Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessments (THIRAs). The State’s capability targets are established during the THIRA process, and assessed in the Stakeholder Preparedness Report (SPR) and inform planning, organization, equipment, training, and exercise needs to prevent, protect against, mitigate, respond to, and recover from acts of terrorism and other catastrophic events.

The Cumberland Valley Area Development District has been awarded a grant for $40,000 for Cybersecurity.  CVADD will use the funds to provide risk assessments for county clerks offices in the 8 county region.  By enhancing cyber security, we will be able to address vulnerabilities and improve cybersecurity of critical infrastructure to meet minimum levels identified by CISA.
For more information on the Kentucky Office of Homeland Security Grant, be sure to visit


CVADD Impact During COVID-19 Pandemic

June 1, 2020 (London, KY):  Despite the COVID-19 Pandemic, the Cumberland Valley Area Development District staff has been able to continue providing services in Bell, Clay, Harlan, Jackson, Knox, Laurel, Rockcastle, and Whitley Counties.  Here are a few of the many things our staff was able to accomplish while social distancing since March 2020:

  • Provide over 66,000 meals to Senior Citizens
  • Submitted 1 Transportation BUILD Grant for $26 million total
  • Submitted 4 Homeland Security Grants for $338,758 total
  • Submitted 2 Land & Water Conservation Fund Grants for $254,600 total
  • Submitted 3 Recreational Trails Program Grants for $410,178 total
  • Submitted 1 Rural Public Transit Planning Grant for $30,000 total
  • Completed Bicycle & Pedestrian Master Plan for City of Corbin
  • Updated database of Roadway Center Lines
  • Updated 911 Mapping for Harlan County
  • Assisted 23 Families with Car Seat Checks
  • Assist unemployed workers in job searches


Kentucky Governor appoints CVADD employee to state board

February 19, 2020 (London, KY): During today's CVADD Board of Directors Meeting, Arlene Gibson, District Long Term Care Ombudsman, was recognized. Arlene was recently appointed by Kentucky's Governor to be a member of the Palliative Care    Inter-disciplinary Advisory Council. She will be serving on the council through June 2022. Pictured are Arlene Gibson (left) with Executive Director, Whitney Chesnut.  In 2019, Kentucky Senate Bill 65 was signed into law to help establish a Palliative Care Interdisciplinary Advisory Council as well as a Professional Information and Education Program in Kentucky.  It is an honor that Arlene was chosen to serve on the board after her years of service providing assistance as Long Term Care Ombudsman for our area.


CVADD employees get certification for CDBG Grants

February 3, 2020 (London, KY): Three members of the CVADD staff are now certified Community Block Development Grant administrators. Caitlin Mason, Public Administration Specialist; Dan Mullins, Water Management Coordinator; and Susanna Cornett, Economic Development Specialist attended a three-day CDBG training in December, and were recently notified that they passed the certification exam. CVADD communities have received millions in CDBG grants over time, and each grant requires monitoring by a certified CDBG administrator. With CVADD Executive Director Whitney Chesnut also a CDBG certified administrator, CVADD has the capacity and expertise to manage any CDBG grant our communities are awarded. Let us know if your community is interested in applying! For more information, visit External link opens in new tab or or call 606-864-7391.


CVADD Public Administration Specialist completes Grant Writing Training

January 27, 2020 (London, KY): CVADD employees continue to attend training to ensure that they are updated on the latest regulations on various programs. Caitlin Mason, Public Administration Specialist, has completed Grant Writing 101 and Grant Writing 201 Training. These workshops provided information on general grants, as well as Federally funded grants. Caitlin has been assisting communities with Land & Water Conservation Grants, Recreational Tails Program Grants, and Rural Development Grants, all of which are currently open.

If you have any questions on grant writing, be sure to contact Caitlin at (606) 864-7391 or

Find out more on Community and Economic Development projects at External link opens in new tab or window


CVADD Highway Safety Coordinator attends Highway Safety Task Force meeting

January 22, 2020 (Frankfort, KY) - Dreama Wright, CVADD Highway Safety Coordinator, serves on the Kentucky Office of Highway Safety Occupant Protection Task Force. They recently had a meeting at the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet in Frankfort, Kentucky, on January 22, 2020. Federal, state and local highway safety partners attended the meeting with one goal in mind - to save lives on Kentucky roadways.  For more information on Highway Safety programs with the CVADD, click here.


CVADD Regional Transportation Planner meets Kentucky Governor Andy Beshear

January 17, 2020 (Lexington, KY) - During the Kentuckians for Better Transportation Conference, CVADD Regional Transportation Planner, Jessica Blankenship, met with Kentucky Governor, Andy Beshear, and Mr. Rocky Adkins on transportation issues in southeast Kentucky. Governor Beshear commended the work that all of the Area Development Districts do in Kentucky and the impact they have made for communities.

Pictured left to right are Rocky Adkins, Natalie Flores of External link opens in new tab or windowBluegrass Area Development District, Jessica Blankenship, and Governor Andy Beshear.

For more information on Regional Transportation Planning and the Regional Transportation Committee, click here.


Cumberland Valley Area Development District hosts

Child Passenger Safety Certification Training

January 17, 2020 (London, KY): Sharon Rengers, State Child Passenger Safety Coordinator along with Dreama Wright, CVADD Highway Safety Coordinator, held a Continuing Education class at the CVADD office. Several Law Enforcement agencies, Hospital, Fire Departments and the Kentucky Department of Transportation were in attendance from local to statewide agencies.  


As the certifying body for the National Child Passenger Safety Certification Training Program assures that all certified CPS technicians have the knowledge and skills to:


1. Advise and educate families on selection, direction, location, installation, and harnessing of child safety  seats. 2. Identify and correct misuse or incorrect child safety seat installation. 3. Correctly install child safety seats in a variety of motor vehicles according to vehicle and child restraint manufacturer instructions.


Your initial certification is based upon attending a national training course, passing the written testing (three written quizzes), demonstrating technical CPS skills (three skills tests) and participating in a mandatory “clinical” session, or as it is known in the CPS community, a checkup event. While a certification is valid for two years, every CPST has an obligation to maintain their technical skills, adhere to the standards of the National CPS Certification Training curriculum and uphold the  code of conduct. The child passenger safety field is a constantly changing environment with new products and technology being introduced regularly. 


The CPS certification program requires completion and online documentation of three elements for re-certification:


1. 5 Seat Checks: These are fully reviewed by a CPS Instructor or  Technician Proxy: The 5 seat check requirement documents that technicians have maintained and can demonstrate their CPS technical and communication skills. This requirement is similar to law enforcement officers periodically returning to the firing range to re-qualify and demonstrate their expertise with firearms. 2. 6 Continuing Education Units (CEUs):  The 6-hours of technical education help technicians stay up-to-date with innovations in vehicle and child restraint technology, new guidelines, best practices and the scientific evidence that supports child safety seat use. 3. Community Education:  Participation in community education demonstrates that you are a practicing technician applying your CPS skills and knowledge in the field or learning new communication skills to better serve the community.


This is what is required of a nationally certified technician and one that as an educator you can build upon. There is always room for improvement and many ways to approach it. Everyone, no matter how long they have been a tech, has room to improve their technical skills. Identify your technical needs, is it learning about a new seat that you haven’t seen yet? Perhaps it is reviewing and tweaking your communication skills with families and your fellow technicians. It could simply be refreshing yourself by reaching out to people in a diverse community. The field of child passenger safety provides many opportunities for innovative thought and professional growth.

For more information on becoming a CPS tech, please contact Dreama Wright at (606) 864-7391.


CVADD Board of Directors honor Mike Hamm

December 18, 2019 (London, KY) - On December 18, 2019, the Cumberland Valley Area Development District honored long time board member Mike Hamm with the Make a Difference Award.  The award is given to those that have served the board for a long time, as well as shared their thoughts and ideas to help make the area a better place to live, work, and play.  Pictured are CVADD Executive Director, Whitney Chesnut, along with Mr. Mike Hamm.


NADO Official visits Cumberland Valley Area Development District


December 9, 2019 (London, KY) - The Cumberland Valley Area Development District was happy to host NADO Associate Director, Carrie Kissel, on December 9, 2019. On Monday, she lead a listening session with community members in health, workforce, county/city government, public transit, chamber of commerce, economic development, and corrections. Ideas were explored to address the transportation mobility issues in the community. On Tuesday, Carrie and Jessica Blankenship from CVADD attended a Rural Substance Abuse Disorder Transportation, Funding, and Recovery Workshop at the University of Tennessee. Carrie and Jessica will be working with partners to host a similar workshop in Kentucky.

External link opens in new tab or window


CVADD Employee graduates from BRIGHT Kentucky Leadership Program

Janice Way (President of Leadership Kentucky), Jessica Bray (Regional Transportation Planner with CVADD),
Elmer Whitaker (President & CEO of Whitaker Bank) and Teresa Hail (2019 Leadership Kentucky Board Chair)

November 22, 2019 (Morehead, KY) - The inaugural class of BRIGHT Kentucky, a External link opens in new tab or windowLeadership Kentucky program, graduated in Morehead on Friday, November 22, 2019. Forty-eight civic and community leaders from across the Appalachian region of Kentucky celebrated completion of the program at the Morehead Conference Center. Cumberland Valley Area Development District was represented by Jessica Blankenship, Regional Transportation Planner, who completed the program.

BRIGHT Kentucky is designed to build the capacity of next-generation leaders (average age 20-40) in the Appalachian region of Kentucky to innovate, collaborate, and advance community and economic development. BRIGHT Kentucky engages bright, entrepreneurial minds from all sectors and regions to offer non-partisan, ethical leadership training, expanded networks, and mentors designed especially for residents of the 54 Kentucky counties of the External link opens in new tab or windowAppalachian Regional Commission (ARC). Following graduation, participants are prepared to think long-term and strategically build upon the strengths of their communities and newly formed networks to lead the region to a more prosperous future.

The program, which ran July through November, took participants across Eastern Kentucky including: Natural Bridge Region in July, Big Sandy Region and Cumberland Region in September, the Daniel Boone Region in October, and the Gateway Region in November. BRIGHT Kentucky is made possible by a $500,000 Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) grant and private funding from the Whitaker Foundation, External link opens in new tab or windowSOAR - Shaping Our Appalachian Region, and others. The ARC is an economic development agency of the federal government and 13 state governments, including Kentucky, focusing on 420 counties across the Appalachian Region.

“The BRIGHT program is a call to action. Effective leadership requires action and is best measured by results. The participants have been challenged to identify various projects to improve their region and exercise ethical leadership and regional collaboration to render success,” said Elmer Whitaker, former Leadership Kentucky Board Chair and BRIGHT Program Visionary and donor. “Given the quality leaders in the program and the growth obtained through BRIGHT, we are certain their actions will have positive results.”

This year’s class included 47 participants from 28 different ARC counties representing a variety of public and private sectors.

BRIGHT Kentucky will be have its second class in 2020. Applications for the Class of 2020 will be available in March online at External link opens in new tab or


Rockcastle County Industrial Development Authority receives Appalachian Regional Commission Grant


November 3, 2019 (Mt. Vernon, KY) - On November 3, 2019, a first step toward natural gas to Rockcastle County has became a reality through a Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC ) grant. A regional partnership involving Rockcastle County, Lincoln County, and Delta Natural Gas was awarded a $500,000 grant to create a gas tap on a interstate transmission line. The immediate opportunity per the agreement worked out between the partners once the gas tap is completed is Delta Gas will construct a service line to the Lincoln County Industrial Park East of Stanford not currently served by natural gas.  CVADD provided assistance on the grant application, along with Southeast Kentucky Economic Development Corporation.

In addition the City of Mount Vernon & RCIDA was also awarded a $1 Million dollar grant for a new business Kentucky Farmaceuticals to be located in Rockcastle County.


CVADD Area Agency on Aging and Independent Living

Declare October Long Term Care Residents' Rights Month


October 15, 2019 (London, KY) - Rachel McFadden, Aging and Disability Resource Center Coordinator and Ombudsman Sarah Mills, Caregiver Program Coordinator at CVADD met with London Mayor, Troy Rudder today as he signed a Proclamation recognizing October 2019 as Long Term Care Residents' Rights Month. This years theme is "Stand for Quality." We very much appreciate the support of Mayor Rudder in honoring our residents with this proclamation. CVADD houses the office of Arlene Gibson who is the Cumberland Valley District Long Term Care Ombudsman. Sara Mills is also a certified Long Term Care Ombudsman. The office of the Ombudsman serves as an advocate for all residents of Long Term Care, Personal Care, and Family Care Homes. The goal of the Ombudsman is to ensure these Resident Rights are honored and the residents and family are informed. Contact info for the Ombudsman is located in all long term care facilities and also by calling office: Arlene Gibson, Cumberland Valley District Long Term Care Ombudsman 606-864-7391 x119.


October 15, 2019 (Barbourville, KY) - Mayor David Thompson visited with residents at Barbourville Health and Rehabilitation during the signing of a Proclamation declaring October 2019 as Residents' Rights Month in his community, urging local citizens to do the same. Pictured from left to right seated is resident Wilma Jean Branstutter, resident Martha Grubb, Mayor David Thompson and resident James Jordan Standing left to right: Bobbi Mills, Nursing home Administrator, Corey Chesnut, Forcht Bank Group, and Cumberland Valley District Long Term Care Ombudsman Arlene Gibson. Gibson serves as a patient advocate to residents of long term care and provides resources and guidance to residents and families of residents. Contact info for Arlene Gibson: 606-864-7391 x119


October 15, 2019 (Middlesboro, KY) - Middlesboro Mayor Rick Nelson met with residents and staff at Middlesboro Health and Rehabilitation Center to sign and declare a proclamation designating October 2019 as National Residents' Rights Month.  Cumberland Valley Area Development District Long Term Care Ombudsman, Arlene Gibson, was also on hand.  Gibson serves as an advocate for all residents in long-term care facilities.  She also provides resources and guidance for families with concerns and questions related to long-term care, serving the eight counties and 18 facilities.  Pictured, from left, back row are Melissa Robbins, Administrator, Abigail Hickey, Social Service Director, Arlene Gibson, Ombudsman.  In the front row are residents Hassie Thomas and Norma Akers, Mayor Nelson, residents William Thompson, Ruth McNeil, and Mary Starr.


October 15, 2019 (McKee, KY) - From Jackson County Judge Executive Shane Gabbard: "I have always said if you ever getting down and out and feel like the whole world is coming in on you then take a trip to the Nursing Home. Those folks are facing hard situations to say the least and still yet they smile when you walk in the door. That’s why we declared this month “ National Long Term Residents Rights Month”. The proclamation I signed says “Stand for Quality” on the header. This proclamation states and recognizes that even though someone is in long term care they still have their right to vote, make decisions for everyday life and so on. Presenting the proclamation was Aaron Banks with the CVADD. I met Mr Banks at Jackson Manor in Annville and we had residents on hand to wittiness the signing. It was. Wonderful welcome we received and we are proud to make this proclamation. Please keep everyone a long term care facility in your prayers."  Pictured standing is Aaron Banks from the CVADD.